Migration Policy and Integration Policy: The Case of Russia
Long-term demographic, economic and political challenges which Russia faces, will demand inflow of immigrants. There are available certain socio-cultural restrictions of an immigration policy and a policy of integration: counteraction of the native population of the local societies extremely negatively concerning to migrants; weak adaptive opportunities of a part of migrants; social practice of interaction of the native population with immigrants; specific historical experience and traditions of intercultural interaction of the native population; features and stereotypes of public consciousness of Russians. Social practice of interaction of the native population of the Russian local societies and migrants promote distribution of the ethno-social stratification especially appreciable on a labour market, and social exclusion of migrant’s minorities. Long-term negative consequences of distribution discrimination practices for migrants, ethno-social stratification and social exclusion migrants cause alarm. First, ethnic identity is supported and reproduced to the detriment of civil, and it becomes a serious obstacle of formation of a civil society. Second, public foundations are undermined, erosion public norms and values are exposed. Thirdly, separation ethnic migrants, formation subcultural migrant’s enclaves in the accepting environment, including territorial enclaves, becomes a problem menacing to social and economic and political stability, is especial at a local level. Fourthly, ethnic discrimination is gradually distributed to all representatives this minority - including having the Russian citizenship. Fifthly, ethnic discrimination directly threatens functioning of base social institutes (public service, army, law enforcement bodies, judicial system, institutes of family, education, etc.). The author concludes that the policy of immigrants’ integration and adaptation of migrant workers should be the key link of the Russian migration policy.
Keywords: Immigration, Integtation, Adaptation, Discrimination, Social Stratification, Social Exclusion
Dr. Vladimir Mukomel
Head of Division, Department of Xenophobia and Extremism Studies
Vladimir Mukomel is the Doctor of science (Sociology, Institute of Sociology, RAS), Ph.D. (Demography, Moscow State University), M.D. (Economy, Moscow State University), B.D. (Computer Aided Disign, Moscow Physics Technical Institute).
In 1994 - 1999 - the employee of Administration of the President of Russia (the head analyst of the Analytical Center of the President of the Russian Federation, the adviser of Security Council).
Sphere of research interests of V.Mukomel are migration and refugees studies, national minorities, ethnodemography, socio-economic consequence of conflicts, computer simulation of social processies.
He is the author more than 120 scientific publications, including 13 books. His works are published in the USA, the Great Britain, Germany, France, Hungary and other countries. Constantly acts with comments on the current problems in the Russian and foreign mass-media.