Language as a Resource for Internal and International Activity of “Nations without States”

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In some sense today the old Westfalian model and the idea of “great state system” is currently giving place to the new forms of “trans-national” democracy and “post-national” citizenship, a case represented by the European Union. This post-national citizenship may paradoxically and at the same time logically lead to ethnic minorities’ aspiration for self-identification and isolation and to their hopes to get out of state control and to present themselves to the world as independent political actors in order not to disappear completely. Many regions of the European Union, which sometimes call themselves “nations without state” are trying to determine themselves, to declare their own political status within the state and also to gain as much autonomy and independence as possible. The regional governments of Catalan-speaking European regions of different countries (Spain, France, Italy and Andorra) unite their efforts in order to restore and reinforce the position of Catalan in the world. Catalan language is an important socio-political and cultural basis and the resource of the international activity of this region because the principal sub-national actors that are cooperating with Catalan government are the Catalan-speaking regions. The language is also an instrument of integration and international interaction of these European regions, that facilitates the communication between them and helps to develop the integration process within the borders of Catalan countries.


Keywords: "Nation without State", Language Policy, Paradiplomacy, Catalan Countries, Integration, Language Rights, Nationalism
Stream: Nations, Nationalism, Communities
Presentation Type: Paper Presentation in English
Paper: Language as a Resource for Internal and International Activity of “Nations without States”


Bulat N. Khalitov

Lecturer, Department of Law and Political Science, Kazan State University of Power Engineering
Kazan, Republic of Tatarstan, Russian Federation

Born on June 18, 1982. In 1999 finished the English college, on September 01, 1999 I entered the Kazan State University, the Faculty of Romanic and Germanic languages and on June 31, 2004 I received the honoured degree in the specialty of "Philology". On November 01, 2004 I entered the post-graduate studies in the Institute of Economics and Social Technologies in Kazan State University of power Engineering (Department of Law and Political Science). I defended the thesis named "Linguistic Aspects of Political Processes: Internal and International perspectives" on December 26, 2006 and received the degree of PhD in April 2007. Now I'm working in the Kazan State University of Power Engineering as a lecturer.

Ref: D08P0450