Language as a Resource for Internal and International Activity of “Nations without States”
In some sense today the old Westfalian model and the idea of “great state system” is currently giving place to the new forms of “trans-national” democracy and “post-national” citizenship, a case represented by the European Union. This post-national citizenship may paradoxically and at the same time logically lead to ethnic minorities’ aspiration for self-identification and isolation and to their hopes to get out of state control and to present themselves to the world as independent political actors in order not to disappear completely. Many regions of the European Union, which sometimes call themselves “nations without state” are trying to determine themselves, to declare their own political status within the state and also to gain as much autonomy and independence as possible. The regional governments of Catalan-speaking European regions of different countries (Spain, France, Italy and Andorra) unite their efforts in order to restore and reinforce the position of Catalan in the world. Catalan language is an important socio-political and cultural basis and the resource of the international activity of this region because the principal sub-national actors that are cooperating with Catalan government are the Catalan-speaking regions. The language is also an instrument of integration and international interaction of these European regions, that facilitates the communication between them and helps to develop the integration process within the borders of Catalan countries.
Keywords: "Nation without State", Language Policy, Paradiplomacy, Catalan Countries, Integration, Language Rights, Nationalism
Bulat N. Khalitov
Lecturer, Department of Law and Political Science, Kazan State University of Power Engineering